Filial Responsibility Expectation Item-Scale (Filiale Zorg Verwachtingen Schaal)


Contact: Theo van Tilburg

The filial responsibility expectation scale is an adjusted version of the Hamon 'filial responsibility expectations' 16-item scale (Hamon & Blieszner, 1990). Two items were excluded from the Hamon scale: children who live at a distance should write their parents once a week; older parents should be able to live with one of their adult children. Results of the study by Hamon and Blieszner (1990) showed that these items are deemed less important by both older parents and adult children. Two new items were added to the scale. First, an item directed towards communication: it is important to learn whether filial responsibility expectations encompass children to phone their parents on a regular basis (item 5). Second, an item in context of an ever-changing health care system: it is important to know whether filial responsibility expectations include the adult overseeing the quality of the professional services received by parents (item 14). The scale was used in a self-administered questionnaire. The scale consists of 16 items, all positively formulated. The items are preceded by an introduction. The item scores were collected by means of a written questionnaire.

The scale items

General introduction (In English; see LASA132_quest_nl for Dutch)

Parents expect different things from their children. We are interested in your opinion of these expectations, whether you have children, have had children, or have never had children.

Circle the number of the answer, which corresponds, to your choice. Circle one number per question only. Your options are: (1) Totally disagree; (2) Disagree; (3) Neither agree nor disagree; (4) Agree; (5) Totally agree

  1. Children should live close to their parents
  2. Children should take care of their sick parents
  3. Children should give their parents financial support
  4. Children who live nearby should visit their parent at least once a week
  5. Children should phone their parents on a regular basis
  6. Children should feel responsible for their parents
  7. Children and parents should be together on special occasions, like Christmas and weddings
  8. Parents should be able to talk to their children about matters of personal importance, which have influence on their lives
  9. Children should give emotional support to their parents
  10. Children should be willing to give up free time for their parents
  11. In emergencies children should make room for their parents in their home 
  12. Children should offer advice to their parents
  13. Children should adjust their work situation in order to help their parents, e.g., by working less overtime or temporarily working less hours
  14. Children should monitor the quality of care given to their parents
  15. Children should adjust their situation at home in order to help their parents, e.g., assign activities to others or put activities aside temporarily
  16. Children should familiarise their parents with health care services

Frequenties of the item scores
The results of the computation of the item scores can be found here.

Psychometric properties
Loevingers H = .39; Reliability rho = .90

Scale score
Computation of the scale score from the item scores (SPSS) can be found here.

Frequency of the scale score
Distribution of Filial Responsibility Expectations item-scale scores

N = 1622; Range = 16 - 80; Mean = 50.1; SD = 11.5; Skewness = -.114; Kurtosis = .048

LASAD132 / LASAE132 (self-administered questionnaire: in Dutch)
Interim measurement:
LASEs818 (self-administered questionnaire: in Dutch)

Variable information
LASAD132 / LASAE132;
LASAD332 / LASAE332 (scale values)
Interim measurement:

Availability of information per observation 1  













Filial Responsibility Expectations





1   More information about the LASA data collection waves is available here.

*  IM=interim measurement between E and F (first cohort only);
    2B=baseline second cohort;
    3B=baseline third cohort;
    MB=migrants: baseline first cohort

Sa=data collected in self-administered questionnaire


  1. Hamon, R.R. & Blieszner, R. (1990). Filial responsibility expectations among adult child - older parent pairs. Journal of Gerontology, 45, P110-P112.
  2. van der Pas, S., van Tilburg, T.G., & Knipscheer, C.P.M. (2005). Measuring older adults' filial responsibility expectations: Exploring the application of a vignette technique and an item scale. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 65, 1026-1045. pdf doi:10.1177/0013164405278559